Religious, social and criminal groups in trafficking of nigerian girls and women. The case of shrines, “Ladies’club”, and “cultist groups”



Trafficking will not be approached from the perspective of the victim/madam duo traditionally studied, but by postulating the involvement of several social groups whose activity does not originate in the practice of human trafficking, nor is it reduced to it. The offence of trafficking is therefore perceived as based on an organization that, beyond the criminal activity itself, has a highly structured and legitimized social, community and religious base. We therefore hypothesize here that religious groups (such as the neo-traditional Ayelala Temples in Edo State, Nigeria), women’s groups (such as the “Ladies’clubs”) and “cultist groups” (including Black Axe (Aye) and Supreme Eiye Confraternity) are involved in the trafficking process through the use of beliefs and the implementation of their own practices and operating rules, for criminal purposes. The aim is therefore to describe the operation – activities and development – of each of these groups in Nigeria and France and then to identify their role and level of involvement in human trafficking.

Full PDF Download: WEB_rapport_nigeria_ENG

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